Inför ett seminarium idag har jag gett mina studenter uppgiften att läsa några frågor av Thomas Aquino, vilket har det goda med sig att även jag får läsa honom. Bland annat studerar vi Thomas klassiska fråga ”Whether God exists?”
Thomas utläggning av denna är känd som ”De fem vägarna till Gud”, och denna överskuggar ofta själva inledningen där han tar upp två invändingar mot Guds existens. Inledningen lyder:
Objection 1. because if one of two contraries be infinite, the other would be altogether destroyed. But the word ”God” means that He is infinitegoodness. If, therefore, God existed, there would be no evil discoverable; but there is evil in the world. Therefore God does not exist.
Objection 2. Further, it is superfluous to suppose that what can be accounted for by a few principles has been produced by many. But it seems that everything we see in the world can be accounted for by other principles, supposing God did not exist. For all natural things can be reduced to one principle which is nature; and all voluntary things can be reduced to one principle which is humanreason, or will. Therefore there is no need to suppose God’s existence.
Detta kommenteras insiktsfullt av Frederick Christian Bauerschmidts i Holy Teaching:
The objections in this article are best understood if taken together. The first says that the existence of an infinite God would overwhelm a finite world, in effect leaving no room for anything that is not God (e.g. evil). The second says that since everything in the world can be accounted for by some finite thing there is not room for an infinite God. Thomas’s response to both of these objection is implicit in his conception of the relationship between God and the world: it is a mistake to think of God as an ”object” that competes for room with the other objects that make up the world.
(Sidan 51, not 27)
Mer på samma tema: ”Den heroiska ateismen” av David Bentley Hart.